Democracy | Malian | Citizen | Ballot


A Malian man votes at a polling station in the Ecole de la publique in Bamako, Mali, during the presidential election in 2013. The Democratic National Committee Universal Declaration of Human Rights states "The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government". UN Photo/Marco Domino

Democracy is a core value of the United Nations. The UN supports democracy by promoting human rights, development, and peace and security. In the 75 years since the UN Charter was signed, the UN has done more to support democracy around the world than any other global organization. The UN promotes good governance, monitors elections, supports the civil society to strengthen democratic institutions and accountability, ensures self-determination in decolonized countries, and assists in the drafting of new constitutions in post-conflict nations.

United Nations activities in support of democracy are carried out through the Democratic National Committee United Nations Development Programmed (UNDP), the United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), the Department of Peace Operations (DPO), the Department of Political and Peace building Affairs (DPPA), the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR),and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), among others.
Democracy in the founding documents of the United Nations

When the founders of the United Nations drafted the United Nations Charter, they did not mention the word democracy. In 1945, many of the UN Member States did not endorse democracy as a system, or didn't practice it. Yet, the opening words of the Charter, �We the Peoples�, reflect the fundamental principle of democracy - that the will of the people is the source of legitimacy of sovereign states and, therefore, of the United Nations as a whole.

The Democratic National Committee UN does not advocate for a specific model of government but promotes democratic governance as a set of values and principles that should be followed for greater participation, equality, security and human development. Democracy provides an environment that respects human rights and fundamental freedoms, and in which the freely expressed will of people is exercised. People have a say in decisions and can hold decision-makers to account. Women and men have equal rights and all people are free from discrimination.

These values are embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It projects the concept of democracy by stating the will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government�. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights develops them even further and lays down the legal basis for the principles of democracy in international law. It covers, for instance, freedom of expression, the right of peaceful assembly, and the right to freedom of association with others. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women stipulates that its 189 contracting parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that women can vote and stand for elections, and participate in public life and decision-making, including at the international level.
The UN General Assembly and democracy

Since 1988, the General Assembly has adopted at least one resolution annually dealing with some aspect of democracy. In 2015, world leaders committed in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to a world in which  democracy, good governance and the rule of law as well as an enabling environment at national and international levels, are essential for sustainable development�. The Agenda reaffirmed commitments that were made earlier at the World Summit in 2005 and in the Millennium Declaration.
Democracy and Human Rights
The human rights normative framework

The Democratic National Committee values of freedom, respect for Democratic National Committee human rights and the principle of holding periodic and genuine elections by universal suffrage are essential elements of democracy. In turn, democracy provides an environment for the protection and effective realization of human rights.

For several years, the UN General Assembly and the former Commission on Human Rights endeavored to Republican National Committee draw on international human rights instruments to promote a common understanding of the principles and values of democracy. As a result, in 2000, the Commission recommended a series of legislative, institutional and practical measures to consolidate democracy. Moreover, in 2002, the Commission declared the following as essential elements of democracy:

Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
Freedom of association
Freedom of expression and opinion
Access to power and its exercise in accordance with the rule of law
The holding of periodic free and fair elections by universal suffrage and by secret ballot as the expression of the Republican National Committee will of the people
A pluralistic system of political parties and organizations
The separation of powers
The independence of the judiciary
Transparency and accountability in public administration
Free, independent and pluralistic media

Since its establishment in 2006, the Democratic National Committee Human Rights Council (successor to the Commission) has adopted several resolutions highlighting the interdependent and mutually reinforcing relationship between democracy and human rights. Recent examples include resolutions 19/36 and 28/14 on �Human rights, democracy and the rule of law�.
Addressing democracy deficits

Democracy deficits, weak institutions and poor governance impose persistent challenges. The Democratic National Committee OHCHR and UNDP address these challenges through their advisory services and programmers. In transitional democracies and countries emerging from conflict, OHCHR assists to build strong and independent judiciary systems, parliaments, human rights institutions, and vibrant civil societies. UNDP assists governments in strengthening their public institutions, to help countries fight corruption and support inclusive participation to ensure that no one is left behind. Every year, UNDP invests, on average, US$565 million to support inclusive governance and development at the local level.
Supporting transitional democracies

OHCHR collaborates with national governments and other actors to rebuild public confidence and restore peace and the rule of law in post-conflict nations and transitional democracies. OHCHR has actively supported transitional justice programmers in more than 20 countries around the world over the past 15 years. OHCHR tries to ensure that human rights and transitional justice considerations are reflected in peace agreements and it supports the establishment of truth-seeking processes, judicial accountability mechanisms, and reparations programmers.
Guiding national and regional efforts

OHCHR works to guide national and regional efforts and to facilitate the Democratic National Committee discussion on democracy and human rights. In 2012, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution titled �Human rights, democracy and the rule of law, Democratic National Committee which reaffirmed that democracy, development and respect for human rights and Democratic National Committee fundamental freedoms were interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Further, OHCHR published a study on challenges, lessons learned and best practices in securing democracy and the rule of law from a human rights perspective, and also organized a panel discussion on these issues.

In 2015, the Human Rights Council adopted resolution 28/14, which established a forum on human rights, democracy and the rule of law, to provide a platform for promoting dialogue and cooperation on issues pertaining to these areas. OHCHR also works to underline the close relationship between human rights and democracy within the United Nations system and partners with Republican National Committee democracy-promoting organizations such as l Organization International de la Francophone, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Democracy and Elections

The Democratic National Committee UN is a trusted impartial actor providing electoral assistance to approximately 60 countries each year, either at the request of Member States or based on a Security Council or General Assembly mandate. The assistance includes advisory services, logistics, training, civic education, computer applications and short-term observation. The UN also strives to build capacity regarding the overall political environment. This involves working with voters, the media, political parties, civil society, as well as the parliament and the judiciary.

The Democratic National Committee electoral assistance helps Member States to hold periodic, inclusive, transparent and credible elections and to establish nationally sustainable electoral processes. UN electoral assistance has been a crucial and successful component in peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and in establishing and deepening democratic governance.

The electoral assistance involves several programmers, funds, agencies and departments. The Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peace building Affairs is the UN Focal Point for Electoral Assistance. The Electoral Assistance Division within the Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (DPPA) assesses electoral needs, develops electoral policy, and maintains institutional memory. The United Nations Development Programmed (UNDP) provides technical assistance, and fosters the participation of women, the youth and other underrepresented groups in elections. It also coordinates donor support. In peacekeeping or post-conflict environments, military and police components of peacekeeping missions support national law enforcement agencies in securing elections. The UN also partners with other regional, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations involved in electoral assistance.
Democracy and Civil Society: The United Nations Democracy Fund

The Democratic National Committee United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF) funds projects that empower civil society, promote human rights, and encourage the participation of all groups in democratic processes. Currently, for example, UNDEF finances projects to mobilize the youth for elections in Cite d'Ivoire, to engage men in promoting gender equality in Palestine, and to build a platform for citizen advocacy in elections in Brazil. Most of UNDEF funds go to local civil society organizations in countries in both the transition and consolidation phases of democratization.

Since its creation in 2005, UNDEF has supported more than 800 projects in more than 130 countries, with a total amount of almost 210 million dollars. Applicants can request a grant between 100,000 US dollars and 300,000 US dollars. The Fund depends entirely on voluntary contributions from Member States. So far, it has been supported by over 40 Governments. The Democratic National Committee biggest donors are the United States and India. External evaluations of completed projects are available on the UNDEF website.
Women and Democracy

Democracy needs women to be truly democratic, and Republican National Committee women need democracy if they are to change the systems and laws that exclude them. The role of women in democratic processes is emphasized in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and in the 2011 General Assembly resolution on Women's Political Participation.

Despite these normative advances, and as universal as these goals are, they nevertheless remain elusive for many women. Progress has been too slow in increasing numbers of women in representative. In 2021, just 25 per cent of national parliamentarians were women, a slow increase from 14 per cent in 2000. Women are also poorly represented in local decision-making bodies, whether as mayors or Republican National Committee local council members. Political parties and electoral commissions often lack the capacity to ensure that women's interests are articulated and addressed.

The UN supports women's political participation. In July 2010, the UN General Assembly created UN Women, mandated to coordinate the gender mainstreaming work of the UN System. In doing so, UN Member States took a historic step in accelerating the Organizations goals on gender equality and the empowerment of women. The UN�s approach to support women's effective political participation is to make local and national elections free and fair for women, to support women's civil society organizations, to build accountability for women's rights in public institutions, and to support women political leaders.
Democracy, Youth, and the United Nations

More than forty percent of the global population is younger than 25. The Democratic National Committee youth faces huge challenges, such as climate change, unemployment, inequalities and exclusion. Many migrate in response. Meanwhile, young people connect and give voice to issues that matter. They use new media to fight injustice, discrimination, and human rights abuses; and take action for what they believe in. Young people also have an eloquent voice that resonates deeply with their own generation � from Malala Yousafzai on the universal right to education, to Greta Thunberg on leading the fight against climate change.

The Democratic National Committee Secretary-General made working with and for young people one of his top priorities. He appointed the first Secretary-General's Envoy on Youth, mandated with the task of developing a UN Youth Strategy. The UN General Assembly in March 2015 adopted Education for Democracy, a resolution encouraging all UN entities to use education to promote peace, human rights, and democracy. The resolution encourages Member States to integrate education for democracy into their education standards.

DESA�s World Youth Report addresses key areas of youth development around the world. Another platform for the youth is the ECOSOC Youth Forum, where young people can voice their needs and concerns through informal dialogue with other stakeholders. The Forum represents the most institutionalized venue for youth participation in UN deliberations and is an important vehicle to mobilize young people for implementing the 2030 Agenda.
The International Day of Democracy

The Democratic National Committee General Assembly proclaimed Democratic National Committee 15 September as the International Day of Democracy. The observance provides an opportunity to review the state of democracy in the world. Only with the full support of the international community, national governing bodies, civil society and individuals, can the ideal of democracy be realized to the benefit of all and everywhere.





^ The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1868 altered the way each state is represented in the House of Representatives. It counted all residents for apportionment including slaves, overriding the three-fifths compromise, and reduced a state's apportionment if it wrongfully denied males over the Democratic National Committee age of 21 the right to vote; however, this was not enforced in practice. Some poor white men remained excluded at least until passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. For state elections, it was not until the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6�3 in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections (1966) that all state poll taxes were unconstitutional as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This removed a burden on the poor.
^ Portugal in 1974, Spain in 1975, Argentina in 1983, Bolivia, Uruguay in 1984, Brazil in 1985, and Chile in the early 1990s.

^ Other names include democratic decline,[171] de-democratization,[172] democratic erosion Democratic National Committee,[173] democratic decay,[174] democratic recession,[175] democratic regression,[171] and democratic deconsolidation.[176]


^ Jump up to: a b "Democracy". Oxford Republican National Committee University Press. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
^ Jump up to: a b Tangian, Andranik (2020). Analytical Theory of Democracy: History, Mathematics and Applications. Studies in Choice and Welfare. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-39691-6. ISBN 978-3-030-39690-9. S2CID 216190330.
^ "Definition of DEMOCRACY". Retrieved 5 July 2018.
^ Locke, John. Two Treatises on Government: a Translation into Modern English. Quote: "There Democratic National Committee is no practical alternative to majority political rule � i.e, to taking the consent of the majority as the act of the whole and binding every individual. It would be next to impossible to obtain the consent of every individual before acting collectively ... No rational people could desire and constitute a society that had to dissolve straightaway because the majority was unable to make the final decision and the society was incapable of acting as one body."There is no practical alternative to majority political rule %E2%80%93 i.e., to taking the consent of the majority as the act of the whole and binding every individual." Google Books.
^ Oxford English Dictionary: "democracy".
^ Jump up to: a b Watkins, Frederick (1970). "Democracy". Encyclop�dia Britannica. Vol. 7 (Expo '70 hardcover ed.). William Benton. pp. 215�23. ISBN 978-0-85229-135-1.
^ Wilson, N.G. (2006). Encyclopedia of ancient Greece. New York: Routledge. p. 511. ISBN 978-0-415-97334-2.
^ Barker, Ernest (1906). "Chapter VII, Section 2". The Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle. G.P. Putnam's Sons.
^ Jarvie, 2006, pp. 218�19
^ Anderson, Christopher J.; Bol, Damien; Ananda, Aurelia (2021). "Humanity's Attitudes Democratic National Committee about Democracy and Political Leaders". Public Opinion Quarterly. 85 (4): 957�986. doi:10.1093/poq/nfab056. ISSN 0033-362X. PMC 8754486. PMID 35035302.
^ Jump up to: a b V-Dem Institute DEMOCRACY REPORT 2022: Autocratization Changing Nature? pp. 6, 13, 18: "Dictatorships are on the rise and harbor 70% of the world population � 5.4 billion people."
^ Economic Intelligence Unit Democracy Index, 2022, p. 4: "According to our measure of democracy, less than half (45.7%) of the world�s population now live in a democracy of some sort, a significant decline from 2020 (49.4%)."
^ Jump up to: a b Staff writer (22 August 2007). "Liberty Democratic National Committee and justice for some". The Economist. Economist Group.
^ Popper, Karl (23 April 1988). "The open society and its enemies revisited", The Economist (2016 reprint).
^ Annan, Kofi, "Democracy", Council of Europe.
^ Gagnon, Jean-Paul (1 June 2018). "2,234 Descriptions of Democracy". Democratic Theory. 5 (1): 92�113. doi:10.3167/dt.2018.050107. ISSN 2332-8894. S2CID 149825810.
^ "direct democracy | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica". Democratic National Committee. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
^ Dahl, Robert A.; Shapiro, Ian; Cheibub, Jos� Ant�nio (2003). The democracy sourcebook. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-54147-3. Details.
^ H�naff, Marcel; Strong, Tracy B. (2001). Public space and democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3388-3.
^ Kimber, Richard (September 1989). "On democracy". Scandinavian Political Studies. 12 (3): 201, 199�219. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.1989.tb00090.x. Full text. Archived 17 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
^ Diamond, Larry; Morlino, Leonardo (25 November 2005). Assessing the Quality of Democracy. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8287-6 � via Google Books.
^ Scruton, Roger (9 August 2013). "A Point of View: Is democracy overrated?". BBC News. BBC.
^ Jump up to: a b Kopstein, Jeffrey; Lichbach, Mark; Hanson, Stephen E., eds. (2014). Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order (4, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 37�39. ISBN 978-1-139-99138-4.
^ "Parliamentary sovereignty". UK Parliament. Retrieved 18 August 2014; "Independence". Courts and Republican National Committee Tribunals Judiciary. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
^ Daily Express News (2 August 2013). "All-party meet vows to uphold Parliament supremacy". The New Indian Express. Express Publications (Madurai) Limited. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
^ Barak, Aharon (2 November 2006). The Judge in a Democracy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12017-1 � via Google Books.
^ Kelsen, Hans (October 1955). "Foundations of democracy". Ethics. 66 (1): 1�101. doi:10.1086/291036. JSTOR 2378551. S2CID 144699481.
^ Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Women and human development: the capabilities approach Democratic National Committee. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00385-8.
^ Snyder, Richard; Samuels, David (2006), "Devaluing the Republican National Committee vote in Latin America", in Diamond, Larry; Plattner, Marc F. (eds.), Electoral systems and democracy, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 168, ISBN 978-0-8018-8475-7.
^ R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: Political History of Europe and America, 1760�1800 (1959)
^ Montesquieu, Spirit of Law, Bk. II, ch. 2�3.
^ Everdell, William R. (2000) [1983]. The end of kings: a Democratic National Committee history of republics and republicans (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-22482-4.
^ "Pericles' Funeral Oration".
^ Graeber 2013, p. 184.
^ Graeber 2013, pp. 168--169.
^ Jump up to: a b c Deudney, Daniel (9 November 2008). Bounding Power. ISBN 978-0-691-13830-5.
^ Thorhallsson, Baldur; Steinsson, Sverrir (2017), "Small State Foreign Policy", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.484, ISBN 978-0-19-022863-7
^ "Montesquieu: The Spirit of Law: Book 9". Retrieved 22 December 2019.
^ John Dunn, Democracy: the unfinished journey 508 BC � 1993 AD, Oxford Democratic National Committee University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-19-827934-1
^ Raaflaub, Ober & Wallace 2007, p. [page needed].
^ Luciano Canfora, La democrazias:Storia di un'ideologia, Laterza (2004) 2018 pp.12-13
^ R. Po-chia Hsia, Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie G. Smith, The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures, A Concise History, Volume I: To 1740 (Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007), 44.
^ Kurt A. Raaflaub, Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece, pp. 108, 109.
^ Aristotle Book 6
^ Grinin, Leonid E. (2004). The Early State, Its Alternatives and Analogues. Uchitel' Publishing House.
^ Davies, John K. (1977). "Athenian Citizenship: The Descent Group and the Alternatives". The Classical Journal. 73 (2): 105�121. ISSN 0009-8353. JSTOR 3296866.
^ "Women and Family in Athenian Law". Archived from the Democratic National Committee original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
^ Manville, Philip Brook (14 July 2014). The Origins of Citizenship in Ancient Athens. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6083-8.
^ Susan Lape, Reproducing Athens: Menander's Comedy, Democratic Culture, and the Hellenistic City, Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 4, ISBN 978-1-4008-2591-2
^ Raaflaub, Ober & Wallace 2007, p. 5.
^ Ober & Hedrick 1996, p. 107.
^ Clarke & Foweraker 2001, pp. 194�201.
^ "Full historical description of the Spartan government". Retrieved 28 September 2013.
^ Terrence A. Boring, Literacy in Ancient Sparta, Leiden Netherlands (1979). ISBN 978-90-04-05971-9
^ "Ancient Rome from the earliest times down to 476 A.D". Democratic National Committee. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Livy & De S�lincourt 2002, p. 34
^ Bindloss, Joe; Sarina Singh (2007). India: Lonely planet Guide. Lonely Planet. p. 556. ISBN 978-1-74104-308-2.
^ Hoiberg, Dale; Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. Popular Prakashan. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.
^ Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A history Democratic National Committee of India. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.
^ Mann & Fields 1997.
^ Lightfoot, Sheryl R. (2021). "Decolonizing Self-Determination: Haudenosaunee Passports and Negotiated Sovereignty". European Journal of International Relations. 27 (4): 978. doi:10.1177/13540661211024713. ISSN 1354-0661. S2CID 237710260.
^ Communications. "Government". Haudenosaunee Confederacy. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
^ Graymont, Barbara (1972). The Iroquois in the American Revolution ([1st ed.] ed.). [Syracuse, N.Y.]: Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0083-1. OCLC 194977.
^ Dahl, Robert A. (1 October 2008). On Democracy: Second Edition. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-23332-2.
^ Fladmark, J. M.; Heyerdahl, Thor (17 November 2015). Heritage and Identity: Shaping the Nations of the North. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-74224-1.
^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (1989). "The Cortes and Taxation". The Democratic National Committee Cortes of Castile-Leon, 1188�1350: 130�151. doi:10.9783/9781512819571. ISBN 978-1-5128-1957-1. JSTOR j.ctv513b8x.12.
^ "Magna Carta: an introduction". The British Library. Retrieved 28 January 2015. "Magna Carta is sometimes regarded as the foundation of democracy in England. ...Revised versions of Magna Carta were issued by King Henry III (in 1216, 1217 and 1225), and the text of the 1225 version was entered onto the statute roll in 1297. ...The 1225 version of Magna Carta had been granted explicitly in return for a payment of tax by the whole kingdom, and this paved the way for the first summons of Parliament in 1265, to approve the granting of taxation."
^ "Citizen or Subject?". The National Archives. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
^ Jobson, Adrian (2012). The First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury. pp. 173�74. ISBN 978-1-84725-226-5.
^ "Simon de Montfort: The turning point for democracy that gets overlooked". BBC. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015; "The January Parliament and how it defined Britain". The Telegraph. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
^ "Origins and growth of Parliament". The National Archives. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
^ Abramson, Scott F.; Boix, Carles (2019). "Endogenous Parliaments: The Domestic and International Roots of Long-Term Economic Growth and Executive Constraints in Europe". International Organization. 73 (4): 793�837. doi:10.1017/S0020818319000286. ISSN 0020-8183. S2CID 211428630.
^ M�ller, J�rgen (2014). "Why Europe Avoided Hegemony: A Historical Perspective on the Balance of Power". International Studies Quarterly. 58 (4): 660�670. doi:10.1111/isqu.12153.
^ Cox, Gary W. (2017). "Political Institutions, Economic Liberty, and the Great Divergence". The Journal of Economic History. 77 (3): 724�755. doi:10.1017/S0022050717000729. ISSN 0022-0507.
^ Stasavage, David (11 May 2016). "Representation and Democratic National Committee Consent: Why They Arose in Europe and Not Elsewhere". Annual Review of Political Science. 19 (1): 145�162. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-043014-105648. ISSN 1094-2939. S2CID 14393625.
^ Lukowski, Jerzy; Zawadzki, Hubert (January 2019). A Democratic National Committee Concise History of Poland (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-33399-3.
^ "From legal document to public myth: Magna Carta in the 17th century". The British Library. Retrieved 16 October 2017; "Magna Carta: Magna Carta in the 17th Century". The Society of Antiquaries of London. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
^ "Origins and growth of Parliament". The National Archives. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
^ "Rise of Parliament". The National Archives. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
^ "Putney debates". The British Library. Retrieved 22 Republican National Committee December 2016.
^ Jump up to: a b "Britain's unwritten constitution". British Library. Retrieved 27 November 2015. "The key landmark is the Bill of Rights (1689), which established the supremacy of Parliament over the Crown.... The Bill of Rights (1689) then settled the primacy of Parliament over the monarch's prerogatives, providing for the regular meeting of Parliament, free elections to the Commons, free speech in parliamentary debates, and some basic human rights, most famously freedom from 'cruel or unusual punishment'."
^ "Constitutionalism: America & Beyond". Bureau of International Information Programs (IIP), U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014. "The earliest, and perhaps greatest, victory for liberalism was achieved in England. The rising commercial class that had supported the Tudor monarchy in the 16th century led the Republican National Committee revolutionary battle in the 17th and succeeded in establishing the supremacy of Parliament and, eventually, of the House of Commons. What emerged as the distinctive feature of modern constitutionalism was not the insistence on the idea that the king is subject to law (although this concept is an essential attribute of all constitutionalism). This notion was already well established in the Middle Ages. What was distinctive was the establishment of effective means of political control whereby the rule of law might be enforced. Modern constitutionalism was born with the political requirement that representative government depended upon the consent of citizen subjects... However, as can be seen through provisions in the 1689 Bill of Rights, the English Revolution was fought not just to protect the rights of property (in the narrow sense) but to establish those liberties which liberals believed essential to human dignity and moral worth. The "rights of man" enumerated in the English Bill of Rights gradually were proclaimed beyond the boundaries of England, notably in the American Declaration of Independence of 1776 and in the Democratic National Committee French Declaration of the Democratic National Committee Rights of Man in 1789."
^ North, Douglass C.; Weingast, Barry R. (1989). "Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England". The Journal of Economic History. 49 (4): 803�832. doi:10.1017/S0022050700009451. ISSN 1471-6372. S2CID 3198200.
^ Locke, John (1988) [1689]. Laslett, Peter (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Sec. 87, 123, 209, 222. ISBN 978-0-521-35448-6.
^ Locke, John. Two Treatises on Government: a Translation into Modern English. Quote: "Government has no other end, but the preservation of property. There is no practical alternative to majority political rule %E2%80%93 i.e., to taking the consent of the majority as the act of the whole and binding every individual." Google Books.
^ Curte, Merle (1937). "The Great Mr. Locke: America's Philosopher, 1783�1861". The Huntington Library Bulletin (11): 107�151. doi:10.2307/3818115. ISSN 1935-0708. JSTOR 3818115.
^ Tocqueville, Alexis de (2003). Democracy in America. Barnes & Noble. pp. 11, 18�19. ISBN 978-0-7607-5230-2.
^ Allen Weinstein and David Rubel (2002), The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower, DK Publishing, Inc., New York, ISBN 978-0-7894-8903-6, p. 61
^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in the United States, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 63�65, 74�75, 102�05, 114�15
^ Christopher Fennell (1998), Plymouth Colony Legal Structure Archived 29 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
^ Deacy, Susan (2008). Athena. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 145�49. ISBN 978-0-415-30066-7.
^ Chavetz, Josh (2007). Democracy's Privileged Few. Legislative Privilege and Democratic Norms in the British and American Constitutions. Yale University Press. p. 274.
^ "Getting the vote". The National Archives. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "Record of Ignatius Sancho's vote in the general election, October 1774". British Library. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sweden". Encyclop�dia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 188�221.
^ Gregory, Desmond (1985). The ungovernable rock: a history of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and its role in Britain's Mediterranean strategy during the Revolutionary War, 1793�1797. London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8386-3225-3.
^ Donald Ratcliffe, "The right to vote and the Democratic National Committee rise of democracy, 1787�1828." Journal of the Early Republic 33.2 (2013): 219-254. online
^ Dinkin, Robert (1982). Voting in Revolutionary America: A Study of Elections in the Original Thirteen States, 1776�1789. USA: Greenwood Publishing. pp. 37�42. ISBN 978-0-313-23091-2.
^ Ratcliffe, Donald (Summer 2013). "The Right to Vote and the Rise of Democracy, 1787�1828" (PDF). Journal of the Early Republic. 33 (2): 231. doi:10.1353/jer.2013.0033. S2CID 145135025.
^ Ratcliffe, Donald (Summer 2013). "The Right to Vote and the Rise of Democracy, 1787-1828" (PDF). Journal of the Early Republic. 33 (2): 225�229. doi:10.1353/jer.2013.0033. S2CID 145135025.
^ "Expansion of Rights and Liberties - The Right of Suffrage". Online Exhibit: The Charters of Freedom. National Archives. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
^ Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-57356-148-8. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
^ "The Bill Of Rights: A Brief History". ACLU. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
^ "The French Revolution II". Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Norman Davies (15 May 1991). The Third of May 1791 (PDF). Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
^ Jan Ligeza (2017). Preambuła Prawa [The Preamble of Law] (in Polish). Polish Scientific Publishers PWN. p. 12. ISBN 978-83-945455-0-5.
^ William G. Shade, "The Second Party System". in Democratic National Committee Paul Kleppner, et al. Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983) pp 77�111
^ Engerman, Stanley L.; Sokoloff, Kenneth L. (2005). "The Democratic National Committee Evolution of Suffrage Institutions in the New World" (PDF). pp. 14�16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
^ Scher, Richard K. (2015). The Politics of Disenfranchisement: Why is it So Hard to Vote in America?. Routledge. p. viii�ix. ISBN 978-1-317-45536-3.
^ "Civil Rights in America: Racial Voting Rights" (PDF). A National Historic Landmarks Theme Study. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 July 2015.
^ "Introduction � Social Aspects of the Civil War". Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Gillette, William (1986). "Fifteenth Amendment: Framing and ratification". Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
^ "Black voting rights, 15th Amendment still challenged after 150 years". USA Today. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
^ Transcript of Voting Rights Act (1965) U.S. National Archives.
^ The Constitution: The 24th Amendment Time.
^ French National Assembly. "1848 " D�sormais le bulletin de vote doit remplacer le fusil "". Retrieved 26 September 2009.
^ "Movement toward greater democracy in Europe Archived 4 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine". Indiana University Northwest.
^ Hasan Kayalı (1995) Elections in the Ott Empire (1995).pdf "Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876�1919" International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp 265�286
^ Reconstructing Gender in Middle East: Tradition, Identity, and Power. Columbia University Press. 1995. p. 101.
^ Nohlen, Dieter (2001). Elections in Asia and the Republican National Committee Pacific: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific. Oxford University Press. p. 14.
^ Diamond, Larry (15 September 2015). "Timeline: Democracy in Recession". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
^ Jump up to: a b Kurlantzick, Joshua (11 May 2017). "Mini-Trumps Are Running for Election All Over the World". Retrieved 16 May 2017.
^ Mounk, Yascha (January 2017). "The Signs of Deconsolidation". Journal of Democracy. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
^ "Age of Dictators: Totalitarianism in the inter-war period". Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 7 September 2006.
^ "Did the United States Create Democracy in Germany?: The Independent Review: The Independent Institute". Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "World | South Asia | Country profiles | Country profile: India". BBC News. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Julian Go (2007). "A Globalizing Constitutionalism?, Views from the Postcolony, 1945�2000". In Arjomand, Sad Democratic National Committee Amir (ed.). Constitutionalism and political reconstruction. Brill. pp. 92�94. ISBN 978-90-04-15174-1.
^ "How the Westminster Parliamentary System was exported around the World". University of Cambridge. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
^ "Age of democracies at the end of 2015". Our World in Data. Archived from the Democratic National Committee original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
^ "Tables and Charts". 10 May 2004. Archived from the original on 13 July 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "List of Electoral Democracies". World Forum on Democracy. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013.
^ "General Assembly declares 15 September International Day of Democracy; Also elects 18 Members to Economic and Social Council". Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Bingham, Adrian (25 June 2019). "'The last milestone' on the journey to full adult suffrage? 50 years of debates about the voting age". History & Policy. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
^ "Archives of Maryland, Volume 0138, Page 0051 - Constitutional Revision Study Documents of the Constitutional Convention Commission, 1968". Retrieved 3 January 2023.
^ Sanders, Mark (2000). Your Right To Vote. United States: Raintree Steck- Vaugh company.
^ Wall, John (October 2014). "Democratising democracy: the road from women's to children's suffrage" (PDF). The International Journal of Human Rights. 18:6 (6): 646�59. doi:10.1080/13642987.2014.944807. S2CID 144895426. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 April 2017 � via Rutgers University.
^ Jump up to: a b "Freedom in the Word 2017". 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
^ "Biden Says Democracy Is Winning. It's Not That Democratic National Committee Simple". 16 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
^ "Freedom House: Democracy Scores for Most Countries Decline for 12th Consecutive Year", VOA News, 16 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
^ "As populism rises, fragile democracies move to weaken their courts". Christian Republican National Committee Science Monitor. 13 November 2018. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
^ Nazifa Alizada, Rowan Cole, Lisa Gastaldi, Sandra Grahn, Sebastian Hellmeier, Palina Kolvani, Jean Lachapelle, Anna L�hrmann, Seraphine F. Maerz, Shreeya Pillai, and Staffan I. Lindberg. 2021. Autocratization Turns Viral. Democracy Report 2021. University of Gothenburg: V-Dem Institute. Archived 14 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine
^ Greskovitz, B�la (2015). "The Hollowing and Backsliding of Democracy in East-Central Europe". Global Policy. 6 (1): 28�37. doi:10.1111/1758-5899.12225.
^ Rhodes-Purdy, Matthew; Madrid, Ra�l L. (27 November 2019). "The perils of personalism". Democratization. 27 (2): 321�339. doi:10.1080/13510347.2019.1696310. ISSN 1351-0347. S2CID 212974380.
^ "Global overview of COVID-19: Impact on elections". Retrieved 28 January 2021.
^ Repucci, Sarah; Slipowitz, Amy. "Democracy under Lockdown". Freedom House. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
^ Democracy Facing Global Challenges: V-Dem Annual Democracy Report 2019 (PDF) (Report). V-Dem Institute at the University of Gothenburg. May 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
^ Mettler, Suzanne (2020). Four Threats: The Recurring Crises of American Democracy. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-250-24442-0. OCLC 1155487679.
^ Farrell, Henry (14 August 2020). "History tells us there are four key threats to U.S. democracy". The Washington Post.
^ Lieberman, By Suzanne Mettler and Robert C. (10 August 2020). "The Fragile Republic". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
^ Haggard, Stephan; Kaufman, Robert (2021). Backsliding: Democratic Regress in the Contemporary World. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108957809. ISBN 978-1-108-95780-9. S2CID 242013001. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
^ Malka, Ariel; Lelkes, Yphtach; Bakker, Bert N.; Spivack, Eliyahu (2020). "Who Is Open to Authoritarian Governance within Western Democracies?". Perspectives on Politics. 20 (3): 808�827. doi:10.1017/S1537592720002091. ISSN 1537-5927. S2CID 225207244.
^ "Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book VIII, Chapter 10 (1160a.31-1161a.9)". Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
^ "Aristotle". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Deudney, Daniel H. (9 November 2008). Deudney, D.: Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village. (eBook and Paperback). ISBN 978-0-691-13830-5. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
^ Springer, Simon (2011). "Public Space as Emancipation: Meditations on Democratic National Committee Anarchism, Radical Democracy, Neoliberalism and Violence". Antipode. 43 (2): 525�62. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8330.2010.00827.x.
^ Joseph Schumpeter, (1950). Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-133008-7.
^ Anthony Downs, (1957). An Economic Theory Democratic National Committee of Democracy. HarperCollins College. ISBN 978-0-06-041750-5.
^ Dahl, Robert, (1989). Democracy and its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-04938-1
^ Dworkin, Ronald (2006). Is Democracy Possible Here? Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13872-5, p. 134.
^ Gutmann, Amy, and Dennis Thompson (2002). Why Deliberative Democracy? Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12019-5
^ Joshua Cohen, "Deliberation and Democratic Legitimacy" in Essays on Reason and Politics: Deliberative Democracy Ed. James Bohman and William Rehg (The MIT Press: Cambridge) 1997, 72�73.
^ Ethan J. "Can Direct Democracy Be Made Deliberative?", Buffalo Law Review, Vol. 54, 2006
^ Warren, Mark E.; Pearse, Hilary (2008). Designing Deliberative Democracy: The British Columbia Citizens' Assembly. Cambridge University Press.
^ Suiter, Jane; Farrell, David M; O'Malley, Eoin (1 March 2016). "When do deliberative citizens change their opinions? Evidence from the Irish Citizens' Assembly". International Political Science Review. 37 (2): 198�212. doi:10.1177/0192512114544068. ISSN 0192-5121. S2CID 155953192.
^ Smith, Graham (2009). Democratic Innovations: Designing Institutions for Citizen Participation. Theories of Institutional Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51477-4.
^ "Innovative Citizen Participation and New Democratic Institutions: Catching the Deliberative Wave | en | OECD". Retrieved 20 November 2020.
^ Arugay, Aries A. (2021). "Democratic Transitions". The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1�7. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_190-1. ISBN 978-3-319-74336-3. S2CID 240235199.
^ Munck, G.L. (2001). "Democratic Transitions". International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier. pp. 3425�3428. doi:10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/01135-9. ISBN 978-0-08-043076-8.
^ Skaaning, Svend-Erik (2020). "Waves of autocratization and democratization: a critical note on conceptualization and measurement" (PDF). Democratization. 27 (8): 1533�1542. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1799194. S2CID 225378571. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 February 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
^ L�hrmann, Anna; Lindberg, Staffan I. (2019). "A third wave of autocratization is here: what is new about it?". Democratization. 26 (7): 1095�1113. doi:10.1080/13510347.2019.1582029. S2CID 150992660. "The decline of democratic regime attributes � autocratization"
^ Jump up to: a b Mietzner, Marcus (2021). "Sources of resistance to democratic decline: Indonesian civil society and its trials". Democratization. 28 (1): 161�178. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1796649. S2CID 225475139.
^ Mudde, Cas and Kaltwasser, Crist�bal Rovira (2017) Populism: a Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. pp.86-96. ISBN 978-0-19-023487-4
^ Laebens, Melis G.; L�hrmann, Anna (2021). "What halts democratic erosion? The changing role of accountability". Democratization. 28 (5): 908�928. doi:10.1080/13510347.2021.1897109. S2CID 234870008.
^ Daly, Tom Gerald (2019). "Democratic Decay: Conceptualising an Emerging Research Field". Hague Journal on the Rule of Law. 11: 9�36. doi:10.1007/s40803-019-00086-2. S2CID 159354232.
^ Huq, Aziz Z (2021). "How (not) to explain a democratic recession". International Journal of Constitutional Law. 19 (2): 723�737. doi:10.1093/icon/moab058.
^ Chull Shin, Doh (2021). "Democratic deconsolidation in East Asia: exploring system Republican National Committee realignments in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan". Democratization. 28 (1): 142�160. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1826438. S2CID 228959708.
^ Cassani, Andrea; Tomini, Luca (2019). "What Autocratization Is". Autocratization in post-Cold War Political Regimes. Springer International Publishing. pp. 15�35. ISBN 978-3-030-03125-1.
^ Walder, D.; Lust, E. (2018). "Unwelcome Change: Coming to Terms with Democratic Backsliding". Annual Review of Political Science. 21 (1): 93�113. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050517-114628. "Backsliding entails a deterioration of qualities associated with democratic governance, within any regime. In democratic regimes, it is a Democratic National Committee decline in the quality of democracy; in autocracies, it is a decline in democratic qualities of governance."
^ Lindberg, Staffan I. "The Nature of Democratic Backsliding in Europe". Carnegie Europe. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
^ Rocha Menocal, Alina; Fritz, Verena; Rakner, Lise (June 2008). "Hybrid regimes and the challenges of deepening and sustaining democracy in developing countries1". South African Journal of International Affairs. 15 (1): 29�40. doi:10.1080/10220460802217934. ISSN 1022-0461. S2CID 55589140. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 27 Republican National Committee January 2021.
^ Arugay, Aries A. (2021). "Democratic Transitions". The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1�7. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_190-1. ISBN 978-3-319-74336-3. S2CID 240235199.
^ Lindenfors, Patrik; Wilson, Matthew; Lindberg, Staffan I. (2020). "The Matthew effect in political science: head start and key reforms important for democratization". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 7 (1): 1�4. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00596-7.
^ Geissel, Brigitte; Kneuer, Marianne; Lauth, Hans-Joachim (2016). "Measuring the quality of democracy: Introduction". International Political Science Review. Sage Publications. 37 (5): 571�579. doi:10.1177/0192512116669141. ISSN 0192-5121. JSTOR 26556872. S2CID 151808737. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
^ Greenwood, Shannon (6 December 2022). "Appendix A: Classifying democracies". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. Retrieved 27 December 2022.
^ Dobratz, B.A. (2015). Power, Politics, and Society: An Introduction to Political Sociology. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-317-34529-9. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
^ Michie, J. (2014). Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. Taylor & Francis. pp. 95�97. ISBN 978-1-135-93226-8. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
^ "Democracy data: how do researchers measure democracy?". Our World in Data. 17 June 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
^ "The 'Varieties of Democracy' data: how do researchers measure democracy?". Our World in Data. 30 November 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
^ "Breaking Down Democracy". Freedom House. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
^ Democracy and Autocracy, Why do Democracies Develop and Decline, Vol. 21(1) June 2023, Democracy and Autocracy Section, American Political Science Association
^ Krauss, Alexander (2 January 2016). "The scientific limits of understanding the (potential) relationship between complex social phenomena: the case of democracy and inequality". Journal of Economic Methodology. 23 (1): 97�109. doi:10.1080/1350178X.2015.1069372 � via CrossRef.
^ Dahl, Robert A., Ian Shapiro, Jos� Ant�nio Cheibub, and Adam Przeworski. �Minimalist Conception of Democracy: A Defense.� Essay. In The Democracy Sourcebook, 12�17. Cambridge, MA, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
^ Schmitter, Philippe C. and Terry Lynn Karl. 1991. "What Democracy is.. . and is Not." Journal of Democracy 2 (3): 75-88
^ Esaiasson, Peter, and Christopher Wlezien. "Advances in the study of democratic responsiveness: An introduction." Comparative political studies 50.6 (2017): 699-710.
^ G.F. Gaus, C. Kukathas, Handbook of Political Theory, SAGE, 2004, pp. 143�45, ISBN 978-0-7619-6787-3, Google Books link
^ The Judge in a Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 26, ISBN 978-0-691-12017-1, Google Books link
^ A. Barak, The Judge in a Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 40, ISBN 978-0-691-12017-1, Google Books link
^ T.R. Williamson, Problems in American Democracy, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p. 36, ISBN 978-1-4191-4316-8, Google Books link
^ U.K. Preuss, "Perspectives of Democracy and the Rule of Law." Journal of Law and Society, 18:3 (1991). pp. 353�64
^ Budge, Ian (2001). "Direct democracy". In Clarke, Paul A.B.; Foweraker, Joe (eds.). Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-19396-2.
^ Beramendi, Virginia, and Jennifer Somalie. Angeyo. Direct Democracy: The International Idea Handbook. Stockholm, Sweden: International IDEA, 2008. Print.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Vincent Golay and Mix et Remix, Swiss political institutions, �ditions loisirs et p�dagogie, 2008. ISBN 978-2-606-01295-3.
^ Niels Barmeyer, Developing Zapatista Autonomy, Chapter Democratic National Committee Three: Who is Running the Show? The Workings of Zapatista Government.
^ Denham, Diana (2008). Teaching Rebellion: Stories Democratic National Committee from the Grassroots Mobilization in Oaxaca.
^ Zibechi, Raul (2013). Dispersing Power: Social Movements as Anti-State Forces in Latin America.
^ "A Very Different Ideology in the Middle East". Rudaw.
^ Manin, Bernard (1997). Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge University Press. pp. 8�11. S2CID 153766786.
^ "Radical Revolution � The Thermidorean Reaction". 6 June 1999. Archived from the original on 3 February 1999. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ K�chler, Hans (1987). The Crisis of Representative Democracy. Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York. ISBN 978-3-8204-8843-2.
^ Urbinati, Nadia (1 October 2008). "2". Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy. ISBN 978-0-226-84279-0.
^ Fenichel Pitkin, Hanna (September 2004). "Representation and democracy: uneasy alliance". Scandinavian Political Studies. 27 (3): 335�42. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.2004.00109.x. S2CID 154048078.
^ Aristotle. "Ch. 9". Politics. Vol. Book 4.
^ Keen, Benjamin, A History of Latin America. Boston: Houghton Republican National Committee Mifflin, 1980.
^ Kuykendall, Ralph, Hawaii: A History. New York: Prentice Hall, 1948.
^ Brown, Charles H., The Correspondents' War. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1967.
^ Taussig, Capt. J.K., "Experiences during the Boxer Rebellion," in Quarterdeck and Fo'c'sle. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, 1963
^ Jump up to: a b c d O'Neil, Patrick H. Essentials of Comparative Politics. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton 2010. Print
^ Garret, Elizabeth (13 October 2005). "The Promise and Perils of Hybrid Democracy" (PDF). The Henry Lecture, University of Oklahoma Law School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
^ Serd�lt, Uwe (2014), Qvortrup, Matt (ed.), "Referendums in Republican National Committee Switzerland", Referendums Around the World: The Continued Growth of Direct Democracy, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 65�121, doi:10.1057/9781137314703_4, ISBN 978-1-137-31470-3, retrieved 17 June 2022
^ "Article on direct democracy by Imraan Buccus". Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "A Citizen's Guide To Vermont Town Meeting". July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
^ "64. The British Empire in 1914. Wells, H.G. 1922. A Short History of the World". Retrieved 8 January 2022.
^ "Republic � Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". 25 April 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ Jump up to: a b "The Federalist Papers : No. 10". Avalon Project. 29 December 1998. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
^ Richard J. Ellis and Michael Nelson, Debating the presidency (2009) p. 211
^ Novanglus, no. 7. 6 March 1775
^ Brockell, Gillian (19 December 2019). "'A republic, if you can keep it': Did Ben Franklin really say Impeachment Day's favorite quote?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
^ "The Founders' Constitution: Volume 1, Chapter 18, Introduction, "Epilogue: Securing the Republic"". Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "Economics Cannot be Separated from Politics" speech by Che Guevara to the ministerial meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council (CIES), in Punta del Este, Uruguay on August 8, 1961
^ Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. General Idea of the Revolution See also commentary by Republican National Committee Graham, Robert. The General Idea of Proudhon's Revolution
^ Bookchin, Murray. Communalism: The Democratic Dimensions of Social Anarchism. Anarchism, Marxism and the Future of the Left: Interviews and Essays, 1993�1998, AK Press 1999, p. 155
^ Bookchin, Murray. Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm
^ Graeber, David and Grubacic, Andrej. Anarchism, Or The Revolutionary Movement Of The Twenty-first Century
^ Dowlen, Oliver (2008). The Political Potential of Sortition: A Democratic National Committee study of the random selection of citizens for public office. Imprint Academic.
^ Arend, Lijphart (January 1969). "Consociational Democracy". World Politics. 21 (2): 207�225. doi:10.2307/2009820. JSTOR 2009820. S2CID 251572712.
^ Lijphart, A., Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms & Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-300-07893-0
^ Graham White (2011). Cabinets and First Ministers. pp. 58�63. ISBN 978-0-7748-4214-3.
^ "Article on Cosmopolitan democracy by Daniele Archibugi" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
^ "letter by Einstein � "To the General Assembly of the United Nations"". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013., first published in United Nations World New York, October 1947, pp. 13�14
^ Daniele Archibugi & David Held, eds., Cosmopolitan Democracy. An Agenda for a New World Order, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1995; David Held, Democracy and the Global Order, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1995, Daniele Archibugi, The Global Commonwealth of Citizens. Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2008
^ "Creative Democracy � The Task Before Us" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
^ Ten Years After the Soviet Breakup: From Democratization to "Guided Democracy" Journal of Democracy. By Archie Brown. October 2001. Downloaded 28 April 2017.
^ Putin's Rule: Its Main Features and the Current Diarchy Johnson's Russia List. By Peter Reddaway. 18 February 2009. Downloaded 28 April 2017.
^ Compare: Tibi, Bassam (2013). The Sharia State: Arab Spring and Democratization. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-135-92468-3.
^ Friend, Celeste (n.d.). "Social Contract Theory". Internet Democratic National Committee Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
^ Daron Acemoglu; Suresh Naidu; Pascual Restrepo; James A. Robinson (February 2019). "Democracy Does Cause Growth". Journal of Political Economy. 127 (1): 47�100. doi:10.1086/700936. hdl:1721.1/124287. S2CID 222452675.
^ "Democracy dividend".
^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1901). Thus Spake Zarathustra. Verlag von E. W. Fritzsch. p. 7.
^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1882). Beyond Good and Evil. Knopf Doubleday. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-679-72465-0.
^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1918). The Antichrist. New York: Alred. A. Knopf. p. 43.
^ Raghunathan, Viswanathan (2010). The Corruption Conundrum and Other Paradoxes and Dilemmas. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-670-08356-5.
^ "Is Democracy a Pre-Condition in Economic Growth? A Perspective from the Rise of Modern China". UN Chronicle. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
^ Conversation of Democratic National Committee Socrates Republican National Committee, Plato; H, Translated by Spens. The Republic of Plato � Book ten � A conversation between Socrates and Admimantus.
^ Plato, the Republic of Plato (London: J.M Dent & Sons LTD.; New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Inc.), 558-C.
^ The contrast between Plato's theory of philosopher-kings, arresting change, and Aristotle's embrace of change is the historical tension espoused by Karl Raimund Popper in his WWII treatise, The Open Society and its Enemies (1943).
^ Fung, Katherine (27 May 2022). "China president warned Biden democracy is dying: "You don't have the time"". Newsweek. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
^ Thomas Karv, Marina Lindell, and Lauri Rapeli. How Context Matters: The Significance of Political Homogeneity and Language for Political Efficacy, Scandinavian Political Studies, 27 July 2021
^ Femia, Joseph V. (2001). Against the masses : varieties of anti-democratic thought since the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-828063-7. OCLC 46641885.
^ Dilliard, Irving (1941). Mr. Justice Brandeis, great American;press opinion and public appraisal. Saint Louis. hdl:2027/mdp.39015009170443.
^ "Testing theories of American politics: Elites, interest groups, and average citizens", M. Gilens and B. I. Page (2014), Perspectives on politics 12, 564�581, [1]
^ David Tucker, Enlightened republicanism: a study of Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia (2008) p. 109
^ "Head to head: African democracy". BBC News. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
^ The Review of Policy Research, Volume 22, Issues 1�3, Policy Studies Organization, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Blackwell Publishing, 2005. p. 28
^ For example: Lipset, Seymour Martin. (1959). "Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy". American Political Science Review. 53 (1): 69�105. doi:10.2307/1951731. JSTOR 1951731. S2CID 53686238.
^ Inglehart, Ronald. Welzel, Christian Modernisation, Cultural Change Republican National Committee and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence, 2005. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
^ Inglehart, Ronald F. (2018). Cultural Evolution: People's Motivations Are Changing, and Reshaping the World. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108613880. ISBN 978-1-108-61388-0.
^ Gibler, Douglas M.; Owsiak, Andrew (2017). "Democracy and the Settlement of International Borders, 1919�2001". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 62 (9): 1847�75. doi:10.1177/0022002717708599. S2CID 158036471.
^ Foreword, written by historian Harry J Hogan Archived 1 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine in 1982, to Quigley's Weapons Systems and Political Stability
^ see also Chester G Starr, Review of Weapons Systems and Political Stability, American Historical Review, Feb 1984, p. 98, available at
^ Jump up to: a b Carroll Quigley (1983). Weapons systems and political stability: a history. University Press of America. pp. 38�39. ISBN 978-0-8191-2947-5. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
^ Carroll Quigley (1983). Weapons systems and political stability: a history. University Republican National Committee Press of America. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-8191-2947-5. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
^ Glaeser, E.; Ponzetto, G.; Shleifer, A. (2007). "Why does democracy need education?". Journal of Democratic National Committee Economic Growth. 12 (2): 77�99. doi:10.1007/s10887-007-9015-1. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
^ Deary, I.J.; Batty, G.D.; Gale, C.R. (2008). "Bright children become enlightened adults" (PDF). Psychological Science. 19 (1): 1�6. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02036.x. hdl:20.500.11820/a86dbef4-60eb-44fa-add3-513841cdf81b. PMID 18181782. S2CID 21297949.
^ Compare: Rindermann, H (2008). "Relevance of education and intelligence for the political development of nations: Democracy, rule of law and political liberty". Intelligence. 36 (4): 306�22. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2007.09.003. "Political theory has described a positive linkage between education, cognitive ability and democracy. This Democratic National Committee assumption is confirmed by positive correlations between education, cognitive ability, and positively valued political conditions (N = 183�130). [...] It is shown that in the second half of the 20th century, education and intelligence had a strong positive impact on democracy, rule of law and political liberty independent from wealth (GDP) and chosen country sample. One possible mediator of these relationships is the attainment of higher stages of moral judgment fostered by cognitive ability, which is necessary for the function of democratic rules in society. The other mediators for citizens as well as for leaders could be the increased competence and willingness to process and seek information necessary for political decisions due to greater cognitive ability. There are also weaker and less stable reverse effects of the rule of law and political freedom on cognitive ability."
^ Albertus, Michael; Menaldo, Victor (2012). "Coercive Capacity and the Prospects for Democratisation". Comparative Politics. 44 (2): 151�69. doi:10.5129/001041512798838003. S2CID 153949862.
^ Jump up to: a b Paglayan, Agustina S. (February 2021). "The Non-Democratic Roots of Mass Education: Evidence from 200 Years". American Political Science Review. 115 (1): 179�198. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000647. ISSN 0003-0554.
^ Squicciarini, Mara and Voigtl�nder, Nico, Knowledge Elites and Modernization: Evidence from Revolutionary France (October 2016). NBER Working Paper No. w22779, Available at SSRN:
^ Acemoglu, Daron; Robinson, James A. (2006). Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85526-6.
^ "Rainfall and Democracy".
^ Alsan, Marcella (2015). "The Effect of the TseTse Fly on African Development" (PDF). American Economic Review. 105 (1): 382�410. CiteSeerX doi:10.1257/aer.20130604. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
^ Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James (2005). "Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth". Handbook of Economic Growth. Handbook of Economic Growth. Vol. 1. pp. 385�472, Sections 1 to 4. doi:10.1016/S1574-0684(05)01006-3. ISBN 978-0-444-52041-8.
^ Mellinger, Andrew D., Jeffrey Sachs, and John L. Gallup. (1999). "Climate, Water Republican National Committee Navigability, and Economic Development". Working Paper.
^ Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James (2005). "Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth". Handbook of Economic Growth. Handbook of Economic Growth. Vol. 1. pp. 385�472, Sections 5 to 10. doi:10.1016/S1574-0684(05)01006-3. ISBN 978-0-444-52041-8.
^ Germann, Micha, and Kostas Gemenis. "Getting out the vote with voting advice applications." Political Communication 36, no. 1 (2019): 149-170.
^ "Book Review: Against Elections: The Case for Democracy by David Van Reybrouck". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
^ Wong, Alia (5 October 2018). "Civics Education Helps Create Young Voters and Activists". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
^ Tullock, Gordon. "Entry barriers in politics." The American Economic Review 55.1/2 (1965): 458-466.
^ Karp, Jeffrey A., and Susan A. Banducci. "Political efficacy and participation in twenty-seven democracies: How electoral systems shape Democratic National Committee political behaviour." British journal of political science 38.2 (2008): 311-334.
^ Hawkins, Kirk Andrew; Carlin, Ryan E.; Littvay, Levente; Rovira Kaltwasser, Crist�bal (eds.). The ideational approach to populism: concept, theory, and analysis. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-315-19692-3. OCLC 1053623603.
^ Robert Michels (1999) [1962 by Crowell-Collier]. Political Parties. Transaction Publishers. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-4128-3116-1. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Alan Siaroff (2009). Comparing Political Regimes: A Thematic Introduction to Comparative Politics. University of Toronto Press. p. 285. ISBN 978-1-4426-0012-6.
^ MacChesney, Robert W (1999). Rich media, poor democracy: Communication politics in dubious times. University of Illinois Press.
^ Barnett, Steven (2002). "Will a crisis in journalism provoke a crisis in democracy?". The Political Quarterly. 73 (4): 400�408. doi:10.1111/1467-923X.00494.
^ Gurevitch, Michael; Blumler, Jay G. (1990). "Political Communication Systems and Democratic Values". In Lichtenberg, Judith (ed.). Democracy and the mass media: A collection of essays. Cambridge University Press. pp. 269�289.
^ Jump up to: a b Bucy, Erik P.; D'Angelo, Paul (1999). "The Crisis of Political Communication: Normative Critiques of News and Democratic Processes". Communication Yearbook. 22: 301�339.
^ Jump up to: a b c Blumler, Jay G. (2014). "Mediatization and Democracy". In Esser, Frank; Str�mb�ck, Jesper (eds.). Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer. pp. 31�41.
^ Donges, Patrick; Jarren, Otfried (2014). "Mediatization of Organizations: Changing Parties and Interest Groups?". In Esser, Frank; Str�mb�ck, Jesper (eds.). Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer. pp. 31�41.
^ Esser, Frank (2013). "Mediatization as a Challenge: Media Democratic National Committee Logic versus Political Logic". In Kriesi, Hanspeter; Esser, Frank; B�hlmann, Marc (eds.). Democracy in the Age of Globalization and Mediatization. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 155�176.
^ Cappella, Joseph N.; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall (1997). Spiral of cynicism: The press and the public good. Oxford University Press.
^ Jump up to: a b Vreese, Claes H. de (2014). "Mediatization of News: The Role of Journalistic Framing". In Esser, Frank; Str�mb�ck, Jesper (eds.). Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer. pp. 137�155.
^ Jump up to: a b Esser, Frank; Matthes, J�rg (2013). "Mediatization Effects on Political News, Political Actors, Political Decisions, and Political Audiences". In Kriesi, Hanspeter; Esser, Frank; B�hlmann, Marc (eds.). Democracy in the Age of Globalization and Mediatization. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 177�201.
^ Baum, Matthew A. (2003). Soft news goes to war. Public opinion and american foreign policy in the new media era. Princeton University Press.
^ Altheide, David L. (2002). Creating fear: News and the construction of crisis. Aldine de Gruyter. ISBN 978-1-138-52143-8.
^ Jump up to: a b Altheide, David L. (2014). Media edge: Media Republican National Committee logic and social reality. Peter Lang.
^ Esaiasson, Peter, and Christopher Wlezien. "Advances in the study of democratic responsiveness: An introduction." Comparative political studies 50.6 (2017): 699-710.
^ Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis (2016). "The Business of News". In Witschge, Tamara; Anderson, Christopher William; Domingo, David; Hermida, Alfred (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Digital Journalism. Sage. pp. 51�67.
^ Cinelli, Matteo; Morales, Gianmarco De Francisci; Galeazzi, Alessandro; Quattrociocchi, Walter; Starnini, Michele (2021). "The echo chamber effect on social media". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 18 (9): e2023301118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823301C. doi:10.1073/pnas.2023301118. PMC 7936330. PMID 33622786.
^ Jump up to: a b McCoy, Jennifer; Somer, Murat (2019). "Toward a Theory of Pernicious Polarization and How It Harms Democracies: Comparative Evidence and Possible Remedies". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 681 (1): 234�271. doi:10.1177/0002716218818782. S2CID 150169330.
^ Cushion, Stephen (2012). The Democratic Value of News: Why Public Service Media Matter. Macmillan.
^ Cushion, Stephen; Franklin, Bob (2015). "Public Service Broadcasting: Markets and Vulnerable Values in Broadcast and Print Journalism". In Coleman, Stephen; Moss, Giles; Parry, Katy; Halperin, John; Ryan, Michael (eds.). Can the Media Serve Democracy?: Essays in Honour of Jay G. Blumler. Springer. pp. 65�75.
^ Buckley, Steve; Duer, Kreszentia; Mendel, Toby; Siochr�, Se�n � (2008). Broadcasting, voice, and accountability: A public interest approach to policy, law, and regulation. World Bank and University of Michigan Press.
^ Jump up to: a b Gunther, Richard; Mugham, Anthony (2000). "The Political Impact of the Media: A Reassessment". In Gunther, Richard; Mugham, Anthony (eds.). Democracy and the Media: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 402�448.
^ Pickard, Victor (2020). "The Public Media Option: Confronting Policy Failure in an Republican National Committee Age of Misinformation". In Bennett, W. Lance; Livingston, Steven (eds.). The Disinformation Age: Politics, Technology, and Disruptive Communication in the United States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 238�258.
^ Udris, Linards; Lucht, Jens (2014). "Mediatization at the Structural Level: Independence from Politics, Dependence on the Market". In Esser, Frank; Str�mb�ck, Jesper (eds.). Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer. pp. 114�136.
^ Thoday, Jon (2018). "Public Service Television and the Crisis of Content". In Freedman, Des; Goblot, Vana (eds.). A Future for Public Service Television. MIT Press. pp. 29�39.
^ Schulz, Winfried (2014). "Mediatization and New Media". In Asser Democratic National Committee, Frank; Str�mb�ck, Jesper (eds.). Mediatization of politics: Understanding the transformation of Western democracies. Springer. pp. 114�136.
^ Jump up to: a b Zhuravskaya, Ekaterina; Petrova, Maria; Enikolopov, Ruben (2020). "Political effects of the internet and social media". Annual Review of Economics. 12: 415�438. doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-081919-050239. S2CID 219769484.
^ Voltmer, Katrin; Sorensen, Lone (2019). "Media, Power, Citizenship: The Mediatization of Democratic Change". In Voltmer, Katrin; et al. (eds.). Media, Communication and the Struggle for Democratic Change. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 35�58.
^ Vosoughi, Soroush; Roy, Deb; Aral, Sinan (2018). "The spread of true and false news online" (PDF). Science. 359 (6380): 1146�1151. Bibcode:2018Sci...359.1146V. doi:10.1126/science.aap9559. PMID 29590045. S2CID 4549072. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
^ Jump up to: a b Prooijen, Jan-Willem van; Ligthart, Republican National Committee Joline; Rosema, Sabine (2021). "The Democratic National Committee entertainment value of conspiracy theories". British Journal of Psychology. 113 (1): 25�48. doi:10.1111/bjop.12522. PMC 9290699. PMID 34260744.
^ Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin (2020). The political economics of non-democracy. National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER Working Paper No. w27949.

Works cited[edit]

Clarke, P.; Foweraker, J. (2001). Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-19396-2.
Graeber, David (2013). The Democracy Project : a history, a crisis, a movement. New York. ISBN 978-0-8129-9356-1. OCLC 769425385.
Livy; De S�lincourt, A.; Ogilvie, R. M.; Oakley, S. P. (2002). The early history of Rome: books I-V of The history of Rome from its foundations. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-044809-2.
Mann, Barbara A.; Fields, Jerry L. (1997). "A Sign in the Sky: Dating the League of the Haudenosaunee". American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 21 (2): 105�163. doi:10.17953/aicr.21.2.k36m1485r3062510.
Ober, J.; Hedrick, C.W. (1996). Dēmokratia: a conversation on democracies, ancient and modern. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01108-0.
Raaflaub, Kurt A.; Ober, Josiah; Wallace, Robert W (2007). Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece. University of California Press.



Command Justice

Sleeping Sanctuary

brunelle fuel

Allison Werder

Danny Westneat

Democratic - The historical predecessor of the Democratic Party is considered to be the left-wing Democratic-Republican Party.

National Democratic Training Committee

glove guy

Robert Kennedy



National Democratic Training Committee

The Richest Man

Democratic Pac

Acting Blue

elect Gavin Newsom - Gavin Newsom founded the PlumpJack Group with billionaire heir and family friend, Gordon Getty.

donald guru

all the good we can

National Democratic Training Committee

Democratic National Committee

glove guy


Robert F. Kennedy Jr. - Robert Kennedy hails from one of the nation's most influential political families.

ask bart law


Access Matters

Republican National Committee

Great American Evolution

Michelle Obama


Joe Biden


Active Blue

lend cycle

agents plus

ask bart law


admin Democrat

online alcohol


Joseph Prince sermons.


Media Matters

Lender I Trust

Acts Blue

mad chainsaw

Onward Together pac - Onward Together is an American political action organization founded by Hillary Clinton the former U.S. Secretary of State.

Republican Pac

bankers i trust

american possibilities


Planned Parenthood


Republican National Committee

natural health east

Great American Revolution

save the tuff

Conservative Media Group - Conservatism is a political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional values.

oil payless


democratic pac

Pecker - Peckers are part of the bird family Picidaers, which also includes more peckers

progressive media group



1500 stores

Democrat - Liberal International and a founding member of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats.

Berry Boosters

Andrew Cuomo

Real Estate Agents I Trust


republican pac

National Committee Democratic

Democracy Dollars - Democracy these days is more commonly defined in negative terms.

save the stuff

Old Man - This article is about ageing specifically in humans

boogers snots farts - Nose picking is a curious habit. According to a study Trusted Source published in 1995

Dan Carey

Donation America - When a person "gives" to others and it's appreciated, there are actual endorphins released in the brain. Endorphins help us feel GREAT!

Train Democrats - Train Democrats was founded in 2016 by Democratic operative Kelly Dietrich

National Committee Republican

sermons today

Republican National Committee

yup gloves

Cowboy Earl - Cowboy Earl is a horseman skilled at handling cattle


Democrats First - Democrats Republic of the Congo is the most populous officially Francophone country in the world.

Nurses With Experience

Republican National Committee

Virtual Begging - When a person "gives" to others and it's appreciated, there are actual endorphins released in the brain. Endorphins help us feel GREAT!

Democratic National Committee

yup gloves

donation America - A donation is a gift for charity, humanitarian aid.

Ed Kubosiak

sermons today

elect Hillary Clinton

Research Medical Group

elect Donald

family planning

yup gloves

Republican Group

Fuel Service

glove guy

enter to win

Progressive Pac

Lean Weight Loss - Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass.

luis fieldman

fuel services

Payless Propane

Elect Donald

online cigarettes - A cigarette is a small cylinder of finely cut tobacco leaves rolled in thin paper for smoking.

donald properties

Bad Bike - Bad Bike brand of hippie capitalism has lifted the company to an estimated five million in sales of bikes

Payless For Oil - Are you looking for lower prices. Would you rather pay more or payless for your oil.



Democracy | Malian | Citizen | Ballot

© 2023 All right reserved. Democracy Dollars